Pygame is a 2D graphics and gaming library for Python. It’s pretty nifty because it essentially gives you a blank window that you can draw any shapes or lines or images you want on it. But it doesn’t come with any UI elements like buttons, scrollbars, or check boxes. This post will go through not only creating a button class for Pygame, but also the reasoning behind why I’ve set up the code as it is. This is more of a “how to create a module other people can use” tutorial than a UI or Pygame tutorial.
This tutorial assumes you know the basics of Pygame and Python programming. If you don’t, it’s probably easy enough to follow anyway.
A button is a common user interface (UI) control that is used in many software applications. It seems simple enough: there’s a button on the window and you click on it and something happens. But there’s a lot of details we should plan out ahead of time. Remember, we want to make a generic button class so that other programmers can use this in their games and programs. Once you’ve read through the process here, you’ll be familiar with how to make your own modules for UI elements.
Designing a UI button class is good a good programming practice exercise.
Download the PygButton module here. You can also look at just the pygbutton.py file itself.
The Feature List (and the Non-Feature List)
First, let’s create a list of design details for the buttons:
Wow, this was an easy blog post to write.
I suppose a longer answer would be more satisfying.
I have no idea how old you, the reader, are but that’s irrelevant. No, you are not too old to learn programming. If you wonder if you are too old to become a professional software developer and are under the age of 50, the answer is still no. (And even above that age, the answer is merely “probably”.)
But you might feel too old, or at least feel forever crippled because you didn’t start coding the instant you developed fine motor skills. But I still assure you: You are not too old to learn programming.
I have the source code written for my next book, “Hacking Secret Ciphers with Python” (formerly “Become a Code Breaker with Python”). (You can download the rough draft.)
The programs all implement classic cryptographic ciphers (Caesar cipher, simple substitution, etc.) as well as programs that can crack them. I’m posting it for public review so people can make any suggestions for edits. The code is loaded on github here:
These programs are for a book that teaches computer programming in Python 3 to complete beginners, as well as teaching amateur cryptography. My aim for the programs are:
- Simple – Is the code arranged in a way that requires the least amount of prerequisite knowledge? Is there a chunk of code that should have more comments? Is there a comment that doesn’t make sense?
- Correctness – Is the cipher implemented correctly according to descriptions of the cipher?
- Consistency – Is the naming and spacing of the code consistent with the other programs?
Things that are not goals for the source:
- Security is not a primary concern. These are educational examples to teach basic cryptography concepts. Please withhold comments or criticisms that would be more appropriate for commercial encryption software. I understand that Python’s random module is not suitable for crypto. I understand that the RSA block cipher should use CBC mode instead of ECB mode. These decisions have been made because the point of this book is to teach and be simple for the reader to understand without going into the arcana of cryptography.
- Efficient and elegant code is also not a primary concern. For example, I don’t use list comprehensions because it would add another programming topic to explain in the book. The code uses more lines than it probably needs too, but I’d rather have more-but-readable code than less-but-elegant code. If there’s an order of magnitude improvement that I can make, I’ll do it. Otherwise, a few extra seconds of processing time is worth having simpler code.
- The code doesn’t dogmatically pass PEP-8. “Meh.”
Thanks to anyone who can offer their advice!
“Zip” programs that can compress multiple files into one smaller .zip file are fairly popular for downloads since the fewer bytes you have to download the faster it will download. But how do you compress files? Files are made up of ones and zeros, which can’t be squished like clothes into a tight suitcase.
Think about file compression working like this: If someone asked you what the lyrics to “99 bottles of beer on the wall” were, you would tell them:
“The song goes ’99 bottles of beer on the wall, 99 bottles of beer, take one down, pass it around, 98 bottles of beer on the wall’, and then you repeat the lyrics with a number one less than the previous time.”
The above sentence has 42 words in it. You wouldn’t tell the person literally the entire song (which has 2,376 words in it). The reason you don’t have to recite the full song is because of the song’s repetition. Repetition makes compression possible. We’ve achieved a 98% compression rate (counting by the word amount) with the description of the lyrics over the literal lyrics (42 words vs. 2,376 words), even though both detail exactly the same song.
This is a continuation from Part 1 and Part 2, where I go through the source code of Square Shooter, an Asteroids clone, and try to redesign the code to be more readable.
Now that I’ve refactored the code, I’ll try adding three new features: multiple bullets, a shotgun powerup and a UI change to show the remaining time for each powerup.
UPDATE: Felix, the original author of Square Shooter, has made some comments in the comment section that are pretty insightful. I recommend you check them out.
This is a continuation from Part 1, where I go through the source code of Square Shooter, an Asteroids clone, and try to redesign the code to be more readable. (Part 3 is also up.)
All of the changes I make can be viewed on github. You can also download the original source code for Square Shooter.